The final section of the SEIPS model relates to healthcare outcomes. These outcomes relate firstly to the Safety and Quality of patient care. These outcomes are monitored at a Local, Regional, and National basis within our healthcare system.

In line with its human factor’s principles, the SEIPS model also encourages us to consider outcomes relating to staff wellbeing; recognising that maintaining a healthy, motivated workforce will always be inextricably linked to providing the best patient care.




The College remains deeply engaged with initiatives to monitor and improve patient outcomes and safety. It works with the Scottish National Mortality and Morbidity programme; hosting its annual workshop to promote team-based quality reviews. The College works with CoRESS (Confidential Reporting System in Surgery), an independent charity that collects data on adverse events and disseminates lessons learned. The College is represented on NCEPOD (National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death).

Staff wellbeing is an essential outcome to the Human Factors approach to patient safety; it feeds back to many of the essential determinants of the system – recruitment & retention, workplace culture, and task performance. This is a key area of work within the College; and links to projects around fatigue, bullying & harassment, and improving the working environment. The College has contributed to the GMC Advisory Group on the Wellbeing of the Medical Profession. The Patient Safety webinar series includes a session on ‘Helping Surgeons when Things Go Wrong’.

The College continues to collaborate, build, and spread its Patient Safety resources; it strives to include aspects of safety in all activity. Mr. Simon Paterson-Brown, previous Chair of the RCSEd Patient Safety Board, collaborated with NHS Education for Scotland to develop its online Human Factors resource which launched in September 2019. An online Masters degree in Patient Safety and Clinical Human Factors was launched as part of Edinburgh Surgery Online in 2018. Patient safety prizes are included in College conferences; the Patient Safety Group regularly contributes to international meetings on Safety, Quality, and Improvement.


Patient Safety Resources - Outcomes



Scottish Mortality and Morbidity Programme






GMC Review of Doctors Wellbeing


NES Patient Safety Zone 


MSc in Patient Safety and Clinical Human Factors


Learn more about the other areas of the SEIPS model here.

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